A malfunction of the ER stress response caused by aging, genetic mutations, or environmental factors can result in various diseases such as diabetes, inflammation, and neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, and bipolar disorder, which are collectively known as ‘conformational
How does Parkinson’s disease affect the endoplasmic reticulum?
Accumulation of misfolded proteins is a central paradigm in neurodegeneration. Because of the key role of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in regulating protein homeostasis, in the last decade multiple reports implicated this organelle in the progression of Parkinson’s Disease (PD) and other neurodegenerative illnesses.
What are the diseases of protein?
The proteopathies (also known as proteinopathies, protein conformational disorders, or protein misfolding diseases) include such diseases as Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease and other prion diseases, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, amyloidosis, multiple system atrophy, and a wide range of other disorders (see List
What are the functions of endoplasmic reticulum?
The endoplasmic reticulum serves many general functions, including the folding of protein molecules in sacs called cisternae and the transport of synthesized proteins in vesicles to the Golgi apparatus.
What happens if the UPR is unsuccessful in relieving the stressful conditions in the cell?
Accumulation of unfolded or misfolded proteins activates a signaling pathway, called the unfolded protein response (UPR), which acts to relieve ER stress and, if unsuccessful, leads to cell death. These signaling pathways play an important role in determining the cell’s fate in response to stress conditions.