Botulism and tetanus are two severe neurological diseases in man and animals.
While botulism is characterized by a descendant flaccid paralysis, tetanus consists in spastic paralysis.
In the severe forms of both diseases, death occurs by respiratory distress.
How are the organisms that cause tetanus and botulism similar?
Botulism and tetanus are diseases caused by neurotoxins produced by Clostridium botulinum and Clostridium tetani, respectively. The bacteria and the toxins they produce are closely related.
Why are the symptoms of tetanus and botulism opposite?
Symptoms are strikingly opposite: tetanus is characterized by unrelieved tension or spasticity of the striated muscles and botulism by a limp or flaccid state of the same muscles. In both cases, the muscles can no longer be moved in a coordinated manner, resulting in respiratory paralysis and death.
What neurotransmitter does tetanus affect?
The clinical manifestations of tetanus are caused when tetanus toxin blocks inhibitory impulses, by interfering with the release of neurotransmitters, including glycine and gamma-aminobutyric acid. These inhibitory neurotransmitters inhibit the alpha motor neurons.
What are the three types of botulism?
Botulism is a serious illness caused by a nerve toxin made by the bacterium, Clostridium botulinum (C. botulinum). A toxin is a poison that is released by some bacteria. There are three types of botulism: food, wound and infant botulism.
What’s the difference between tetanus and botulism?
Botulism and tetanus are diseases caused by neurotoxins produced by Clostridium botulinum and Clostridium tetani, respectively. The bacteria and the toxins they produce are closely related. In botulism a descending flaccid paralysis occurs, whereas in tetanus generalized muscle spasms develop.
Can you survive tetanus?
If Clostridium tetani spores are deposited in a wound, the neurotoxin interferes with nerves that control muscle movement. The infection can cause severe muscle spasms, serious breathing difficulties, and can ultimately be fatal. Although tetanus treatment exists, it is not uniformly effective.
Where do toxins act on in the tetanus?
Tetanus neurotoxin (TeNT) binds to the presynaptic membrane of the neuromuscular junction, is internalized and transported retroaxonally to the spinal cord. The spastic paralysis induced by the toxin is due to the blockade of neurotransmitter release from spinal inhibitory interneurons.
Where is tetanus toxin found?
Tetanus toxin is produced by the anaerobic bacillus Clostridium tetani, which commonly resides in soil. The bacillus enters the human through a wound in the skin, and the toxin travels along peripheral nerves to the central nervous system.
How toxic is botulism?
Clostridium botulinum is a bacterium that produces dangerous toxins (botulinum toxins) under low-oxygen conditions. Botulinum toxins are one of the most lethal substances known. Botulinum toxins block nerve functions and can lead to respiratory and muscular paralysis.