|Brainstem location||Signs/symptoms||Possible structures|
|Pons||Dysarthria and dysphagia||Pontine corticobulbar tracts|
|Ataxia||Pontine corticopontocerebellar tracts|
|“Locked-in syndrome”||Central pontine myelinolysis|
|Medulla||Weak pharyngeal muscles||CN IX|
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What diseases affect the brain stem?
The most frequent neurodegenerative diseases (NDs) are Alzheimer’s disease (AD), Parkinson’s disease (PD), and frontotemporal lobar degeneration associated with protein TDP-43 (FTLD–TDP).
What are the 8 parts of the brainstem?
The brainstem consists of the medulla oblongata, pons, and midbrain.
What causes inflammation of the brain stem?
The most common cause is a viral infection. The brain becomes inflamed as a result of the body’s attempt to fight off the virus. Encephalitis occurs in 1 in every 1,000 cases of measles. Encephalitis generally begins with fever and headache.
What are the 3 parts of the brainstem and their functions?
Brainstem. The brainstem (brain stem) is the distal part of the brain that is made up of the midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata. Each of the three components has its own unique structure and function. Together, they help to regulate breathing, heart rate, blood pressure, and several other important functions.